Contoh Soal Tes TOEFL Reading Comprehension Lengkap Dengan Kunci Jawaban

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Questions 1 through 10 are based on the following passage.

Lichens, of which more than twenty thousand
species have been named, are complex associations
between certain algae. The lichen itself is not
an organism: rather it is the morphological and biochemical
product of the association. Neither a fungus
nor an alga alone can produce lichen.

The intimate relationship between these two
living components of lichen was once erroneously
though to represent mutualism. In mutual relationships,
both participants benefit. With lichens, however,
it appears the fungus actually parasitizes the algae.
This is one of the conclusions drawn from experiments
 in which the two components of lichens were separated
 and grown apart.

In nature, lichen fungi may encounter and
grow around saveral kinds of algae. Some types of
algae the fungi may kill; other types it may reject.
Lichen algae are autotrophic, meaning they make their
own food through photosynthesis. Lichen fungi are
heterotrophic, meaning they depend upon the algae
within the lichen to supply their food. Up to ninety
percent of than food made by the green alga cell is
transferred to the fungus. What, if anything, the fungus
contributes to the association is not well understood.

Lichens are hardly. The grow in many habitats
and are often pioneers in hostile environments
where few other organisms can flourish.

They have been known to grow
endolithically, having been discovered thriving inside
of rocks in Antartica. Lichen help reduce erosion by
stabilizing soil. Saveral kinds of insects glue lichens to
 their exoskeletons for camouflage.

Many species of birds use lichens as building
materials for nests. Human have used lichens for
dyes and antibiotics.

1. Which of the following best describes lichen association?
    A. Simple plants made of two different autotrophic organims.
    B. A mutual association between a fungus and an alga
    C. A parasitic association between two fungi, one autotrophic, the second autotrophic
    D. A union between a parasitic fungus and an autotrophic alga

2. The word "hardly" in line 26 is clossest in meaning to
    A. Tender
    B. Durable
    C. Armed
    D. Beneficial

3. In Biology, mutualism occurs when two different organism live close together and
    A. One organism parasitizes the other
    B. Both organism benefit from the association
    C. Both organism are harmed by the association
    D. One organism benefits while the other does not or is harmed by the association

4. In line 7, the word "intimate" is nearest in meaning to
    A. living
    B. Extraordinary
    C. Biological
    D. Close

5. Lichen serves as camouflage for which of the following?
    A. Insects
    B. Birds
    C. Reptiles
    D. Mammals

6. The true nature of the relationship between the lichen components was clarified by
    A. Examining lichens with a microscope
    B. Observing lichens palced in the dark
    C. Observing the lichen component when grown apart
    D. Decreasing the amount of nutrients available to the lichens

7. In line 27, the word "hostile" is clossestnin the meaning to
    A. Unusual
    B. Cool
    C. Untraveled
    D. Inhospitable

8. An endolithic lichen is one that
    A. Grows in the canopies of trees
    B. Grows inside rocks
    C. Grows at very high altitudes
    D. Grows inside other organism, including other lichens

9. Many lichens contribute at the communities they in habits by
    A. Removing pollutants from the air
    B. Controlling wood-rotting fungi
    C. Slowing the spread of viruses
    D. Reducing soil erosion

Question 11 through 20 are based on the following passage.

        When buying a house, you must be sure to
have it checked for termites. A termite is much like an
ant in its communal habits, although physically the
two insects are distinct.
        Like those ants, termite colonies consist of
different classes, each with its own particular job. The
most perfectly formed termites, both male and
female, make up the productive class. They have eyes,
hard body walls and fully developed wings. A pair of
reproductive termites founds the colony. When new
reproductive termites develop, they leave to form
another colony. They use their wings only this on time
and then break them off.
        The worker termites are small, blind and
wingless, with soft bodies. They make up the majority
of the colony and do all the work. Soldiers are
eyeless and wingless but are larger than the workers
and have hard heads and strong jaws and legs. They
defend the colony and are cared for by the workers.
        The male and female of the reproductive
class remain inside a closed-in cell when the female
lays thousands of eggs. The workers place the eggs
in cell and care for them. Even if one colony is treated
with poison, if a male and female of the reproductive
class escape, they can form a new colony.
         Pest control companies can inspect a house
for infestation of termites. Often, of lay person can not
spot the evidence, so it is critical to have the opinion
of a proffesional. Treatments vary depending upon
the type of termite.

10. How are termites like ants?
      A. They live in communities, and each class has a specific duty
      B. Their bodies are the same shape
      C. The king and queen are imprisoned
      D. The females' reproductive capacities are the same

11. The word "communal" in line 3 is closest in meaning to
      A. Eating
      B. Reproducing
      C. Organizational
      D. Social

12. Which of the following is not true?
      A. All termites have eyes
      B. Some termites cannot fly
      C. Workers are smaller than soldiers
      D. Termites do not fly often

13. In line 4, the word "distinct" is closest in meaning to
      A. Similar
      B. Different
      C. Genetically related
      D. Strong

14. In line 6, "classes" is closest in meaning to
      A. Sexes
      B. Colonies
      C. Courses
      D. Categories

15. Which of the following statements is probably true?
      A. Thousands of termites may move together to develop a new colony
      B. The male and female reproductions do not venture outdoors except
           to form a new colony.
     C. There are more soldiers than workers
     D. A worker could easily kill a soldier

16. The word "founds" in line 10 is nearest in meaning to
      A. Establishes
      B. Destroys
      C. Control
      D. Guards

17. Which of the following would be the best title for this passage?
      A. Termites Destroy Houses
      B. Termites Work Well Together
      C. The Habits and Physical Characteristics of Termites
      D. The relationship of Soldier and Worker Termites

18. The word "each" in line 6 refers to
      A. Ants
      B. Colonies
      C. Jobs
      D. Classes

1. B                   10. A
2. B                   11. D
3. B                   12. B
4. D                   13. B
5. A                   14. D
6. C                   15. B
7. A                   16. A
8. C                   17. C
9. D                   18. B

Sumber : TOEFL WORKSHOP in 30 minutes by BILLY ADAM, Ph.D

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